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Friday, February 27, 2009

Infectious cardiac disease is a general term used to describe an infectious
disease process of the endocardium or lining of the heart. The most common is in the mitral valve site that is affected by the infection.Microorganisms, such as bacteria
or fungi. They entered through the blood and colonize on heart valves. This colonization
makes the site extremely resistant to antibiotic treatment. The presence of the thrombus on the valve, though, increases the likelihood of infection developing.

Thera are 2 type of infectious cardiac diseases :
1. Infective endocarditis
2. Pericarditis.

A. . Infective endocarditis

An infection of the endocardium, heart valves or any cardiac prosthosis is called infective endocarditis.
Bacteria is the common causing of infective endocarditis.
Once the microorganism begin to proliferate on the valve, it will form what we called vegetation or purulent stuff attached to the heart valve. The bacteria than can attached or attack the heart are streptococci, staphylococci also fungi. Others causes of infective cendocarditis are prosthetic valve, long term indwelling catheters,recent cardiac surgery, rheumatic heart diseases, congenital heart defect, valvular dysfunction, IV druigs abuse.

Signs and symtomps :

Fever, splenomegaly, petechia, hematuria, cardiac murmur,pleuritic pain, fatigue and weakness. In the late symptoms is found signs left heart failure

B Pericarditis

If there is any inflamation in the sac surrounding the heart and this area becoming roughened and scarred. This condition is called acut pericarditis. Pericarditis will guide to perform exudate and pericardial effusion are possible.
See picture

Causes :
Myocardiac infarction --> The inflammatory response will activate the mediators migrate to the injury area as caused by myocardiac infarction. The chemical mediator such as histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinins, serotonin are cause vasodilation and increase capillary permeability. Increasing in the capillary permeability will alow some substance such as protein, RBCs leak to the tissue.
So it will make the inner and outermost linings become roughened and scarred.
Radiation--> If any damage from radiation causes activation of the imflammatory response.
Bacterial, fungal or viral infection, autoimmune disorders, previous trauma or cardiac surgery.

Signs and Symptomps

Pericardial friction rub --> the scraping together of the inner and outermost layers produce a sound called friction rub.
Dyspagia --> the pressure on the nerve ending suppling the esophagus
Chest pain --> any inflammation process will stimulate the pain receptors in the heart.

Chronic Pericarditis

Chronic pericarditis is the result of continued irritation to the pericardial lining. The lining becomes thickened and stiff and the client may develop restrictive pericarditis.

Signs and symptoms :

Weakness also with signs of right side heart failure